Linux File System Hierarchy

Linux File System Hierarchy

A file system is a organization of data and meta data on a storage device. In Linux everything under ” / ” , Linux file system is a hierarchically structured tree where every location has its distinct meanings. Linux-tts82013 file_ssytem_TTS

/ – root directory

#Every directory under the root directory is on the root partition

#Every single file and directory starts from the root directory

#Only root user has write privilege on this directory

#/root is root user(super user) home directory, which is not same as /.

/bin – User executable commands

#Contains common binaries and commands, shared by the system as well as the system administrator and the other users.

#Essential commands used in single-user modes are located under this directory

/boot – boot loader

#Contains boot loader files

#The start up files and the Kernel initrd, vmlinuz and grub data

/dev – Device files

#Contains all the file of CPU peripheral hardware’s

#These include terminal devices, usb, or any device.
Ex – /dev/console, /dev/tty1

/etc – System configuration files

#Contains Host-specific system configuration

#Contains configuration files required by all programs.

#Start up and shutdown scripts to start/stop host specific individual programs.
Ex – /etc/grub.conf, /etc/resolv.conf, /etc/host.conf ..,

/home – User home directories

#Contains home directories of all common users.
Ex – /home/TTS

/lib – System libraries

#Essential shared libraries and kernel modules

#Supporting library files, includes files or programs located under /bin and /sbin required by the system and the users.

/media – Removable media devices

#Mount points for removable media such as CD-ROMs,Usb devices ..,

/mnt – Mount directory

#Temporary files and folders can be mounted under this directory

/opt – Optional application software packages

#contains add-on and third party software packages.

/proc – Process information

#Contains information about system processes and resources as a virtual file system

#Virtual filesystem documenting kernel and process status as text files, Ex- uptime, meminfo,cpuinfo

/sbin – System binaries

#Programs for use by the system and the system administrator.

Ex – init, mount, iptables, reboot, fdisk …

/srv – Service data

#Data for particular service

Ex – /srv/cvs contains CVS related data

/tmp – Temporary files

#Contains temporary files created by system and the users.

#Files under this directory are deleted when system is rebooted.

/usr – read-only user data

#Contains the majority of user’s utilities and applications,Programs

#libraries, documentation etc. for all user-related programs.

#/usr/bin contains binary files for user programs.

#/usr/sbin contains binary files for system administrators.

#/usr/lib contains libraries for /usr/bin and /usr/sbin

#/usr/local contains users programs that were installed from source

/var – Variable data

#Storage for all variable files and temporary files created by the users

#Content of the files that are expected to grow can be found under this directory only

#This includes system logs /var/logs ,mail log /var/spool/mail ,…

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